Magnitude 6.7 Hits Samoa Island Region


http://earthchangesmedia.com/magnitude-6-7-hits-samoa-island-region
Strong earthquakes have struck off the South Pacific nations of Tonga and Samoa, the largest was a 6.7 magnitude, but there have been no immediate reports of injuries or damage and no tsunami warning has been issued.

The US Geological Survey said the first quake had a magnitude of 6.4 and a…

Strong earthquakes have struck off the South Pacific nations of Tonga and Samoa, the largest was a 6.7 magnitude, but there have been no immediate reports of injuries or damage and no tsunami warning has been issued.

_eq sign04

The US Geological Survey said the first quake had a magnitude of 6.4 and a depth of 11 kilometers, striking 109km northeast of Tonga’s Hihifo district on Monday night.

It was followed 30 minutes later by a magnitude-6.5 quake that had a depth of 15km and struck 99km northeast of Hihifo.

Leveni Aho, Director of Tonga’s National Emergency Management Office, said his staff was trying to make contact with officials on the islands near the epicenter, but had not received any reports of damage. No tremors were felt on Tonga’s main island, located about 600km south of Hihifo, he said.

“I think if there was anything significant, it would have been reported by now,” Aho said.

In Samoa, the quake was felt throughout most of the islands, and lasted less than a minute, said Filomena Nelson, assistant chief executive officer of the nation’s Disaster Management Office. There were no reports of damage, she said.

The Hawaii-based Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre said there was no threat of a tsunami.

A Samoa Police Headquarters spokeswoman in Apia said the earthquake lasted about 20 seconds, but was not severe.

“It was like a small shake and that was it.”

There were no initial reports of damage in Apia, she said.

New Zealand’s Geonet duty seismologist John Ristau said there was no tsunami threat as a result of the quake.

Earlier on Monday, a powerful quake rattled the South Pacific nation of Papua New Guinea, generating a small tsunami but prompting no reports of injuries or damage.

Earthquakes are common in the region, which lies on the “Ring of Fire” – an arc of earthquake and volcanic activity that stretches around the Pacific Rim.

The quakes came just hours after a major 7.5 quake struck of the coast of Papua New Guinea coast, near the town of Rabaul, in the country’s northeast.

A tsunami warning was issued soon after the PNG quake, though the Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre said no destructive, Pacific-wide tsunami was expected.

The quake hit 55 kilometers southeast of Kokopo, the capital of East New Britain province that’s home to about 26,000 people, according to the US Geological Survey.

The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, which initially warned that waves as high as 3 meters were possible, said later the threat had mostly passed.

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AVO Puts Volcano Near Adak Back on Watch


http://earthchangesmedia.com/avo-puts-volcano-near-adak-back-on-watch
A volcanic island in the Western Aleutians is stirring again, after several months of quiet.

Semisopochnoi was put on an advisory alert level on Wednesday morning. It’s the first alert at the volcano since a seismic flare-up last June, which was its first activity in almost 30 years.
The Alaska …

A volcanic island in the Western Aleutians is stirring again, after several months of quiet.

semisopochnoi_m

Semisopochnoi was put on an advisory alert level on Wednesday morning. It’s the first alert at the volcano since a seismic flare-up last June, which was its first activity in almost 30 years.

The Alaska Volcano Observatory says earthquake activity began at Semisopochnoi in January, and increased over the past few days. They also report new seismic tremors they say could indicate magma moving inside the volcano.

Semisopochnoi is about 130 miles west of Adak. It comprises several craters and cones within one large caldera, where the last major eruption was in 1987.

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SPECIAL REPORT: High Probability of Significant Earthquakes and Volcanoes Within 14 day Solar Eclipse Window


http://earthchangesmedia.com/special-report-high-probability-of-significant-earthquakes-and-volcanoes-within-14-day-solar-eclipse-window
Recent events call attention to the historical ‘science of cycles’, therefore, I think it best to present a  heighten (elevated) message of concern with forthcoming earth changing events which could occur within the next 10 days.

I base this on recorded research outlining a 28-day …

Recent events call attention to the historical ‘science of cycles’, therefore, I think it best to present a  heighten (elevated) message of concern with forthcoming earth changing events which could occur within the next 10 days.

solar-eclipse-core-quakes_m

I base this on recorded research outlining a 28-day window surrounding a solar eclipse. History indicates large significant events involving earthquakes, volcanoes and different forms of extreme weather, have occurred 14 days prior to an eclipse – or within 14 days after. Related to extreme weather events, this could take the form  as tornados, rapid temperature shifts, and tropical or inland storms.

cascadia_subduction_zone_m

The most recent events are the eruptions of Semisopochnoi, Shiveluch and Colima volcanoes. Also a moderate 5.0 earthquake hits part of the cascadia subduction zone  west of Vancouver Island.

Mexico’s Colima volcano gave quite a show this week, erupting two times in the same morning. Colima is currently in a phase of heightened activity which may be a prelude to one of the major eruptions that have happened at about 100 year intervals in historical times.

semisopochnoi_m

Semisopochnoi volcano erupts and has been upgraded to alert level status ‘Advisory’ code ‘Yellow’ by the US Geological Survey on March 25th. Seismic activity at the Semisopochnoi volcano has increased in intensity over the past few days. Additionally, periods of seismic tremor have been detected, which can indicate movement of magma or magmatic gases.

Shiveluch volcano erupted yesterday shooting a plume of ash  high into the atmosphere. It was captured by NASA’s Terra satellite.

Coast of Vancouver Canada – The U.S. Geological Survey says the moderate earthquake struck west of Vancouver Island about 12:22 p.m. 90 miles southwest of Port Hardy, British Columbia. This area is part Natural Resources Canada says there were no reports of damage, and none was expected. No tsunami warning was issued.

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Important Announcement

I am looking to sell Earth Changes Media, not because I want to, but because I have no choice due to  family and medical circumstances. I am willing to stay on as an advisor/editor/reporter if you so choose. Because my need is urgent, I am listing for $75,000. I am willing to accept $30,000 down and the remainder in payouts.

My immediate need is $23,000 – and I do mean “immediate,” as in today, tomorrow or Monday. In addition to all rights of Earth Changes Media, I will include some of my highest value  domains worth over $30,000.

Below is a list I will make available as part of the agreement:

VOLCANOREPORT.COM – VOLCANOREPORT.NET – SPACEWEATHERNEWS.COM – SPACEWEATHERNEWS.NET – SPACEWEATHERNEWS.ORG – MAGNETICSHIFT.NET – MAGNETICREVERSAL.ORG – MAGNETICPOLE.ORG – GLOBALWARMINGBOOK.NET – EARTHMAGNETICFIELD.NET – EARTHCHANGESREPORT.NET and EARTHCHANGES.ORG

What strikes me as odd as I am writing, is that I believe the person(s) who come forward will not be solely fixed on an investment, but on the value this service has to so many. Maybe wishful thinking, but let’s see what unfold and let’s do it fast.

Needless to say serious reply’s only. Initial contact by email at: ectv@earthlink.net

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New Evidence May Identify Mystery Object at Milky Way Galaxy’s Core


http://earthchangesmedia.com/new-evidence-may-identify-mystery-object-at-milky-way-galaxys-core
New observations may finally reveal the identity of a mystery object circling around the monster black hole at the center of our Milky Way galaxy — or not.
Known to many as “G2,” the unidentified object could be a cloud of gas, or it could be a star, depending on who you ask. D…

New observations may finally reveal the identity of a mystery object circling around the monster black hole at the center of our Milky Way galaxy — or not.

Known to many as “G2,” the unidentified object could be a cloud of gas, or it could be a star, depending on who you ask. Discovered in 2011, G2 captured the attention of scientists because it was on its way to making a tight swing around the black hole — potentially providing the dark monster with a snack.

The new observations of G2 show that it has remained compact during its swing around the black hole, according to the authors of the new research. Since a gas cloud would likely be smeared out by the gravitational pull of the black hole, the scientists conclude that the object is a star. But the group that discovered G2 says the new results are not enough to make a definitive statement about the identity of this peculiar blob.

A star or a gas cloud

The strange mystery object G2 is a fuzzy-looking thing in most photographs. That’s due partly the resolution of those images — it is very difficult to take pictures of the center of the galaxy from Earth’s location on the outer edge of the galactic disk.

G2 is also fuzzy-looking because it has an outer layer of gas and dust around it, and that’s one of the few things scientists studying it can seem to agree on. What lies inside that dust cloud is the subject of an intense scientific debate.

Leading the inquiry are two groups. The first is led by Stefan Gillessen at the Max Planck Institute, who first identified G2 back in 2011. Gillessen thinks there’s enough evidence to show that G2 is a gas cloud, and that it has been smeared out by its close encounter with the black hole.

The second group is led by Andrea Ghez at the University of California, Los Angeles. Ghez was one of the scientists to first demonstrate that there is a monster black hole at the center of the Milky Way (the black hole is called Sagittarius A*, pronounced “Sagittarius A-star”). Ghez says there’s more than sufficient evidence to show that there is a star inside G2’s dusty outer shell, and that it has remained compact as it swings around Sagittarius A*.

For the past year it has felt like these two groups have been engaged in a tug of war. Even though more observations have rolled in, they haven’t been enough to change anyone’s mind.
The third party

Now, a third group has weighed in and picked a side: G2 is a star.

A group of scientists at the University of Cologne in Germany claims the researchers’ most recent data shows that G2 remains compact after its closest approach to the black hole. It hasn’t been smeared out or torn apart the way a gas cloud likely would be under such a strong gravitational force, they say.

“For us, everything points at it being a young star,” said Andreas Eckart, a co-author on the new paper.

The new research paper includes an analysis of data taken by Eckart’s group with the SINFONI instrument on the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) — the same instrument used by Gillessen and colleagues. The study appears in the Feb. 20 issue of the Astrophysical Journal Letters.

Eckart and colleagues say their data shows that G2 has passed its point of closest approach to the black hole. Prior to 2014, they measured the gas cloud moving away from Earth. Now it can be seen moving in the direction of Earth, and at a much faster clip: from 6.2 million miles per hour (10 million km/h) on closest approach, to 7.4 million miles per hour (12 million km/h) after.

The group also made a size measurement of G2 based on data taken between 2008 and 2013, and compared it with the size of G2 today.

“If you take that size estimate and assume it’s a freely expanding cloud on its orbit, it gets orbitally stretched and we calculated that it would be four times larger along the orbit,” he said. “But we see that it’s compact.”

Gillessen initially predicted that not only would G2 smear out in its closest approach to Sagittarius A*, but some of its matter would fall in and radiate light. But the galactic fireworks never appeared.

The new paper by the Cologne group also includes an independent analysis on publicly available data from both the UCLA group (taken with the Keck telescope in Hawaii) and the Max Planck group. That data comes from before G2 made its close approach to the black hole.

“We don’t see any stretching of the cloud that was claimed previously,” Eckart said. “We get a much more coherent picture of a single object.”

The debate continues

Gillessen’s mind has not been changed by the new paper.

Among other things, the Eckart group did not have access to the data taken by his group in 2014, the year of G2’s closest approach, Gillessen said in an interview with Space.com. The Eckart group’s original data was also taken with shorter integration times, meaning that the researchers looked at the object for a shorter period of time. This was done, according to the Cologne paper, to reduce noise in the images.

But Gillessen said these factors mean that the researchers in the Eckart group are only looking at “the tip of the iceberg,” when it comes to G2’s physical features. They may not, he said, be seeing the whole picture.

Despite their disagreements, all three of the groups observing G2 belong to a relatively small community of researchers focusing on this strange object at the galactic center. The Cologne group and the Max Planck group are collaborating on a telescope instrument; one of Eckart’s former graduate students now belongs to the group at UCLA.

Gillessen said he and his colleagues have more observation time planned for the spring and the summer. The identity of G2 may finally be settled in 2015 — or not.

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The Great Wall Of Plasma


http://earthchangesmedia.com/the-great-wall-of-plasma
Amateur astronomers around the world are monitoring a spectacular prominence emerging over the sun’s eastern limb. Sergio Castillo of Corona, CA, calls it “the Great Wall of Plasma,” and here’s why: The vast structure is more than 6x taller and 30x wider than Earth. In…

Amateur astronomers around the world are monitoring a spectacular prominence emerging over the sun’s eastern limb. Sergio Castillo of Corona, CA, calls it “the Great Wall of Plasma,” and here’s why: The vast structure is more than 6x taller and 30x wider than Earth. In other words, it could swallow our entire planet more than 180 times. Bill Hrudey sends this picture from the Cayman Islands.

“It’s a solar imager’s delight,” says Hrudey.

This is a type of prominence commonly called a “hedgerow prominence.” Hot glowing plasma inside the structure is held aloft by quasi-stable solar magnetic fields. NASA and Japanese space telescopes have taken high resolution images of of similar prominences and seen some amazing things such as (1) tadpole-shaped plumes that float up from the base of the prominence; (2) narrow streams of plasma that descend from the top like waterfalls; and (3) swirls and vortices that resemble van Gogh’s Starry Night.

NOAA forecasters estimate a 35% chance of polar geomagnetic storms on March 27th when a co-rotating interaction region (CIR) is expected to hit Earth’s magnetic field. CIRs are transition zones between fast- and slow-moving solar wind streams. Solar wind plasma piles up in these regions, producing density gradients and shock waves that do a good job of sparking auroras.

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Moon’s Iron Core May Reveal Solar System Secrets with X-Ray Scan


http://earthchangesmedia.com/moons-iron-core-may-reveal-solar-system-secrets-with-x-ray-scan
Deep beneath the surface of the moon lies an iron heart that scientists are probing in a new study: By using X-rays to scan the kind of iron probably found in the moon’s core, scientists may gain better estimates of the core’s size and composition.
Studying this unique kind of iron,…

Deep beneath the surface of the moon lies an iron heart that scientists are probing in a new study: By using X-rays to scan the kind of iron probably found in the moon’s core, scientists may gain better estimates of the core’s size and composition.

Studying this unique kind of iron, and subjecting to incredible temperatures and pressures similar to those in the heart of a moon or planet, these findings could also help model the interior of small rocky planets such as Mars and Mercury, researchers added.

Rocky planets and moons generally have metallic cores made up mostly of iron. A better understanding of the properties of iron at the high pressures and temperatures often found in the cores of these rocky bodies could yield vital insights about the solar system. For example, precise knowledge of the structure and composition of the moon’s core is essential for understanding its origin and evolution, which, in turn, would shed light on the birth and development of Earth.

An iron heart

The moon is the only rocky body other than Earth that scientists have multiple direct seismic data from, details gathered by astronauts during the Apollo missions. Based on this seismic data, previous studies estimated the moon had a solid inner core of pure iron and a liquid outer core made of an iron-sulfur alloy, but much about the structure of the lunar core remains controversial.

Until now, most studies of how iron behaves in the cores of rocky bodies have focused on the structure that is probably most stable in the pressures and temperatures found in Earth’s inner core. This so-called hexagonal close- packed, or “epsilon,” phase arranges iron atoms in a lattice whose bottom and top faces are hexagons and whose side faces are rectangles.

However, at the moderate pressures characteristic of the cores of smaller rocky bodies such as the moon, Mercury or Mars, iron usually takes on a different structure. This so-called face-centered cubic, or “gamma,” phase involves iron atoms placed at the corners of lattices shaped like cubes, with atoms also present in the middle of the face of each cube. Much remains unknown about how this form of iron might behave at high pressures and temperatures.

X-ray vision

Now, scientists have conducted experiments to measure the velocity of seismic waves traveling within the gamma phase of iron that is likely found in the moon’s core. In these experiments, the iron is subject to extreme temperatures and pressures. These findings could help develop more accurate models of the interiors of small rocky planets and moons.

The researchers used X-rays to see how sound waves behaved in gamma iron at temperatures of up to about 1,610 degrees Fahrenheit (875 degrees Celsius) and pressures up to 19 gigapascals. (In comparison, 1 gigapascal is more than nine times greater than the pressure at the bottom of the Mariana Trench, the deepest part of the ocean.)

After re-examining seismic data from the Apollo missions in light of these new findings, the researchers suggest the moon’s solid inner core has a diameter of about 310 miles (500 kilometers) and a liquid outer core about 50 miles (80 km) thick. They suggest the inner core is pure gamma iron, while the outer core is composed of iron alloys made up of 3 to 6 percent sulfur by weight.

The same approach the scientists employed to understand the properties of the moon’s core “can be extended to other planets, such as, for instance, Mars,” lead study author Daniele Antonangeli, a physicist at the University of Pierre and Marie Curie in Paris, told Space.com.

For example, NASA plans to send the InSight robotic lander to Mars in 2016. The main scientific objective of the mission is to place a seismic station on the Red Planet. The new findings that Antonangeli and his colleagues have gathered “will be essential to the interpretation of such seismic observations,” he said.

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Dark Matter Probably Isn’t a Mirror Universe, Colliding Galaxies Suggest


http://earthchangesmedia.com/dark-matter-probably-isnt-a-mirror-universe-colliding-galaxies-suggest
Dark matter may not be part of a “dark sector” of particles that mirrors regular matter, as some theories suggest, say scientists studying collisions of galaxy clusters.
When clusters of galaxies collide, the hot gas that fills the space between the stars in those galaxies also…

Dark matter may not be part of a “dark sector” of particles that mirrors regular matter, as some theories suggest, say scientists studying collisions of galaxy clusters.

When clusters of galaxies collide, the hot gas that fills the space between the stars in those galaxies also collides and splatters in all directions with a motion akin to splashes of water. Dark matter makes up about 90 percent of the matter in galaxy clusters: Does it splatter like water as well?

New research suggests that no, dark matter does not splatter when clusters of galaxies collide, and this finding limits the kinds of particles that can make up dark matter. Specifically, the authors of the new research say it is unlikely that dark matter is part of an entire “dark sector” — a mirror version of the visible universe.

Colliding galaxy clusters

Our galaxy contains hundreds of billions of stars, and there are hundreds of billions of galaxies in the observable universe. There’s also a lot of gas and dust between the stars and the galaxies. But all of those stars, galaxies, gas and dust make up only about 10 to 15 percent of the matter in the universe.

The other 85 to 90 percent is dark matter. Scientists don’t know what dark matter is made of or where it comes from, only that it doesn’t appear to reflect or radiate light. It does, however, exert a gravitational pull on the regular matter around it.

David Harvey, a postdoctoral researcher at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne, is one of many scientists currently trying to figure out what dark matter is made of. There are lots of ways to go about this, and Harvey decided to see what happens when dark matter collides with itself.

To do this, Harvey and his colleagues at the University of Edinburgh, where Harvey did his PhD work, looked at collisions among entire clusters of galaxies, where as much as 90 percent of the mass involved in the collision is dark matter, according to a statement from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne.

“[Galaxy cluster mergers] are incredibly messy,” Harvey said. “You’ve got [the stars], the highest densities of dark matter and hot gas all swirling together.”

Scientists have tried to use these galaxy cluster crashes to study dark matter for decades, but improved techniques for observing the different components of those mergers has inspired a revival, he said. “We wanted to have a big statistical sample that tries to average over all these different merging scenarios, and try to get a statistical idea of what dark matter is doing during these cosmological crashes.”

During these incredibly large-scale mergers, scientists have observed that individual stars in these galaxies are so far apart that they very rarely run into one another. So, rather than creating a big, messy wreck, the stars sort of neatly fold together.

However, in between the galaxies is a thick gas full of charged particles. When the galaxy clusters collide, the gas splatters in all directions, like water splashed from a puddle, Harvey said.

“If we measure the dark matter [after the collision], and should it lie where the galaxies are, we know the dark matter is completely collisionless, and doesn’t interact with itself at all,” Harvey said. “And if it should lie where the gas is, we’d say that the dark matter is actually interacting with itself a lot, like a liquid.”

The researchers gathered data on a total of 30 galaxy-cluster collisions. In order to see the stars, the gas and the dark matter, they needed observations from NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-ray Observatory. [Chandra Observatory’s X-ray Universe in Photos]

Dark matter doesn’t radiate or reflect light, but its gravitational pull can help scientists “see” it. Light that is passing near a very massive object will bend around it, in an effect called gravitational lensing. Scientists can see the bending of the light and use that to figure out where dark matter is present.

By looking at 30 galaxy-cluster mergers, the researchers showed that the dark matter behaves more like the stars: It doesn’t splatter during these collisions, but instead remains largely unchanged by the merger.

The dark sector

The implications of the new finding go beyond galaxy mergers: They tell scientists something about what dark matter might be made of.

The gas that is found in between the galaxy clusters tends to splatter during collisions because it interacts with itself, the way a liquid does. Notice how liquids in microgravity tend to join together into bubbles — the material sticks together even though it isn’t bound together like a solid.

Protons — the particles at the heart of every atom — interact with one another in a similar way. Harvey and his colleagues showed that dark matter clearly doesn’t interact with itself the way the gas does; more specifically, it interacts with itself less than protons interact with one another.

Some theories of dark matter posit that it is part of a “dark sector” that is sort of like a mirror of the regular universe — in other words, that it contains dark versions of regular matter particles, like dark photons and dark electrons. In some of those theories, dark matter might be made up of dark protons.

“Chances are that dark matter is not made up of dark protons interacting with dark protons, and chances are, there is not a mirror universe out there with these dark particles,” Harvey said. “The caveat is that theorists could change some of their parameters, so the field is still open to what [dark matter] could be, but we’re narrowing it down.”

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