An international team of astronomers has answered a long standing question about the mysterious jets emitted by black holes. Astronomers have known for years that hyper-dense black holes shoot matter into the universe in high-speed streams known as relativistic jets. “However, nobody knew…
An international team of astronomers has answered a long standing question about the mysterious jets emitted by black holes. Astronomers have known for years that hyper-dense black holes shoot matter into the universe in high-speed streams known as relativistic jets. “However, nobody knew exactly what type of material the jets were spewing.” says ESO astronomer Dr María Díaz Trigo, lead author of the study…..until now.
“Our findings led us to conclude charged particles were being accelerated to fast speeds in the jets, one directed towards Earth, and the other one in the opposite direction,” team member Dr Simone Migliari from the University of Barcelona said.
This new research, along with others, directly affirms my 2012 published equation identifying a direct connection between our Milky Way galaxy emitting funneled charged particles into our Sun/solar system, and into our Earth’s magnetic field – finding their way to the Earth’s core causing super-heated conditions.
Increase Charged Particles Decreased Magnetic Field → Increase Outer Core Convection → Increase of Mantle Plumes → Increase in Earthquake and Volcanoes → Cools Mantle and Outer Core → Return of Outer Core Convection (Mitch Battros – July 2012)
As a way of Earth mitigating its core temperature to maintain an ambient balance, it sweats. In very much the same way humans sweat fluids (H2O) thru our pores to reduce body temperature, Earth sweats its fluid (magma) thru it pores (chambers) known as ‘mantle plumes’.
Currently the Earth is receiving a large amount of X-rays, charged particles in the form of cosmic rays and gamma rays from our Milky Way, and solar rays from our Sun. Our galaxy (Milky Way) is going through a natural cycle of expanding and contracting – or warming and cooling. Currently the Earth’s magnetic field has weakened allowing larger portions of charged particles into our atmosphere. To a lesser but significant degree, the Sun is currently at its “apex” or maximum, producing solar flares, CMEs, coronal holes, and filament all of which are charged particles.
Funneled Charged Particles from Milky Way Black Hole
They discovered that radio emissions were corresponding to the sudden appearance of these jets, and even more interestingly, lines had appeared in the X-ray spectrum (charged particles) which is the tell-tale signature of ordinary atoms around the black hole.
“Surprisingly, we found the lines were not where they should be, but rather were shifted significantly,” Dr James Miller Jones from the Curtin University node of the International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), who led the radio observations, said.
“Until now it wasn’t clear whether the positive charge came from positrons, the antimatter ‘opposite’ of electrons, or positively charged atoms. Since our results found nickel and iron in these jets, we now know ordinary matter must be providing the positive charge.” says Jones.
Positive charged atoms are much heavier than the positrons astronomers thought might make up the jets, and therefore the jets can carry away far more energy from the black hole than previously confirmed.
The study also sheds light on another scientific debate – exactly where the jets emerge from. It has been unclear whether the jets are caused by the spin of the rotating black hole, or if they originate from the disk of matter that surrounds the black hole.
“Our results suggest it’s more likely the disk is responsible for channeling the matter into the jets, and we are planning further observations to try and confirm this,” Dr Miller-Jones said. Using the X-ray data, the team also determined the jets were moving at 66% of the speed of light, or 198,000 km/s, the most accurate determination to date of the jet speed from a run-of-the-mill black hole that’s a few times the mass of the Sun.
For their observations, the team used the European Space Agency’s XMM-Newton satellite to observe X-ray emission from the black hole, as well as CSIRO’s Australia Telescope Compact Array for the radio observations.